13.4 ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītaṁ (Original)

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Chapter 13

<< Chapter 13 verse 3


ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītaṁ
chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak
brahma-sūtra-padaiś caiva
hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ

‘What by Rishis is variously sung, and distinctly by various (Veda-)Chants ; also by Brahma-sūtra passages, full of reasoning and certitude,’

The truths regarding the Kshetra and the Kshetrajña have been variously declared by the Rishis, Parāśara etc. Thus for example:

‘O Earth-king! Myself, thyself and others likewise, are all of the elements. Entities (or egos) en masse, take the bodily shape by following the stream of the guṇās.’1

‘Verily, King! are the guṇās, satva etc., dependent upon deeds (=karma); and deeds are gathered together through (i.e., the consequence of) avidyā (ignorance); and this (avidyā) is in all creatures.’2

‘The soul is pure, imperishable, tranquil, void of qualities, being distinct from prakṛiti (=matter).’3

Similarly, ‘Inasmuch as the body characterised by head, hands and the like, is different from the person, to which of these, O King! can I refer the symbol ‘I’?4

Similarly again, ‘Art thou this head, or thy breast or the belly? or art thou the foot etc., and the like, or are they, O King! thine?’5

‘Distinct, art thou O King! from all the members. Now, like a clever man, King! think who in this is ‘I’.?6

That of both these postulates (matter and soul) distinct from each other, Vāsudeva is Soul, is sung in such verses as:

‘The senses, manas, buddhi and egoship, health, strength and spirit are all, they say, ensouled by Vāsudeva, —both the Kshetra and the Kshetrajña.’7

Distinctly by various Chants (of Vedas), =by Rig, Yajus, Sāma and Atharva Vedas, the distinctions of body-nature and soul-nature are variously sung, as for example:—

‘From this Ātma, verily is ākāśa(space) sprung; from space, air; from air, fire; from fire, water; from water, earth, from earth, the plants; from plants, food; from food, man (purusha = any embodied creature); and this man is truly full of food-essence.’;8 by which, the nature of the body has been stated. And then the subtler principle of Prāṇa(=life), and then the still subtler principle of manas (=mind), have been stated, closing up with the statement:

‘Other again than this mano-maya principle (mind-full sheath) is the still subtler principle, vijñāna-maya (=intelligence-full sheath= soul)’9, by which the nature of soul has been stated. And lastly, the nature of Paramātma (=God) has been stated by the passage:

‘Other again than this vijñāna-maya, the still subtler principle is Ānanda-maya (=God).’10

Similarly also in many places in the other Vedas, Rig, Sāma, and Atharva, the distinctive features in which Kshetra and Kshetrajña exist, and their ensoulment by Brahm, are all clearly enunciated.

Also by Brahma-Sūtra passages i.e., Aphoristic sentences which treat of the knowledge of Brahm, also called Śārīraka-Sūtras, —authoritative judgments on the topic in question. For instance, —commencing with the Aphorism: ‘Space (=viyat) (does) not (originate), on account of the absense of Śruti (to that effect)’11, —the decisions regarding Kshetra-nature have been formulated.

And, commencing with Aphorisms:

‘The soul is not (born etc.,) says the Śruti; also it is eternal as the same (Śrutis) say.’12. etc., the decisions regarding the truth of Kshetrajña have been formulated.

And by the Aphorism:

‘But from the Highest (Lord), because Śruti says,’13 decision has been pronounced regarding everything being under His Guidance and Power (=pravartyatva) and therefore He is the Soul of all things.

In this manner the truths regarding Kshetra and Kshetrajña have been expounded in numerous places (and numerous ways). And now hear the same which in a lucid and compendious manner I am going to explain.

>> Chapter 13 verse 5

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  1. Vish: Pur: II-13-69. ‘Aham tvañcha etc.’
  2. Vish: Pur: II-13-70. ‘Karmavaśyā guṇā etc.’
  3. Vish: Pur: II-13-71. ‘Ātmā śuddho etc.’
  4. Vish: Pur: II-13-89. ‘Piṇḍaḥ pṛithag etc.’
  5. Vish: Pur: ii-13-102. ‘Kim-tvam etat-chiraḥ etc.’
  6. Vish: Pur: ii-13-103. ‘Samastāvayavebhyaḥ etc.’
  7. Vish: Sahasra-nāmādhyāya: Mahābhā: Anu: Parva CILIX-137.
  8. Tait: Up: Anan: ii-1-2. ‘Tasmād vā etasmāt etc.’
  9. Tait: Up: ii-4-1. ‘Tasmād-va etasmāt etc.’
  10. Tait: Up: ii-5-2. ‘Tasmād vā etsasmāt etc.’
  11. Br: Sū: ii-3-1. ‘Na viyad aśruteḥ’.
  12. Br: Sū: ii-3-18. ‘Na`tma sruter nityatvāccha tābhyaḥ.’

    ‘Ātma (soul) is intelligent’[13. Br: Sū: ii-3-20. ‘jñota eva’.

  13. Br: Sū: ii-3-40. ‘Parāt tu tach-chruteḥ.’

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