5.15 nAdhaththE kasyachith pApam

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 5

<< Chapter 5 verse 14

SlOkam – Original

nAdhaththE kasyachith pApam na chaiva sukrutham vibhu: |
agyAnAnEnAvrutham gyAnam thEna muhyanthi janthava: ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

vibhhu: – the jIvAthmA which can permeate in many places
kasyachith pApam – the sins of (those who are dear to him like son et al)
na Eva AdhaththE – does not remove;
(kasyachith) sukrutham cha – the joy of (those who are hated by him like enemy et al)
na Eva AdhaththE – does not remove.
gyAnam – (his) knowledge
agyAnEna – by the hurdles which are the previously committed sins
Avrutham – concealed;
janthava: – jIvAthmAs who are encaged in the bodies such as dhEva, manushya etc
thEna – due to such previously committed sins
muhyanthi – become deluded (with confusing body as soul etc)

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

The jIvAthmA which can permeate in many places does not remove the sins or merits (of those who are dear to him like son et al or those who are hated by him like enemy et al respectively). jIvAthmAs, whose knowledge is concealed by the hurdles which are the previously committed sins, who are encaged in bodies [forms] such as dhEva, manushya etc., due to such previously committed sins, become deluded (with confusing body as soul etc).

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘The vibhu1 (ātma) does not take away one’s sin or merit. It is by ignorance that wisdom is wrapped, creatures being thereby deluded.’

Ātma cannot snatch away the sin, -i.e., misery or suffering,— though it may attach to a beloved son etc., nor can it steal away the merit —i.e., happiness— which may belong to one who is hated. Because ātma is not insignificant (kvāchitkaḥ), constrained to keep to a certain limited sphere as when confined in the body of a deva and so on; and, inasmuch as ātma is of a nature that can have neither the relationship called amity, nor antagonism called enmity, all such notions (friends, foes etc.) are caused by vāsanā (material instinct). How then does such instinct come to ātma of the above-described nature? The reason is ignorance. Ignorance covers (or veils) wisdom. Ignorance (or nescience) is that which is opposed to wisdom (or knowledge). By this wisdom-hostile ignorance -due to the retrospective karma (deeds),— the intelligence (or consciousness) of this ātma becomes contracted, so as to subject it (ātma) to the predicament of becoming an enjoyer of the fruits thereof (of karma). By karma then, which confines (or obscures) intelligence, the linking with such bodies as deva, etc., is forged. From love for the bodies, arises infatuation. This infatuation persisting, becomes the instinct (vāsanā), (which constitutes the germ for further material existence). Thence spring forth the further body-loving instincts, and karma-instincts (i.e, pruriency or impulse to act)2. From these instincts, further perverted3 loves issue, and further impulses to action are engendered4.

Now the topic of wisdom, —as alluded to in:

(Sarvam jñāna): ‘Thou shouldst yet with this wisdom-bark swim across all evil’ (IV-36);

(Jñān-āgniḥ): ‘The fire of wisdom reduces all action to ashes’ (IV-37).;

(Nahi jñānena) ‘No purifier like wisdom’; (IV-38)— is opportunely brought in here:—

>> Chapter 5 verse 16

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  1. So called, by the all-pervasive, or all-diffusive nature of consciousness.
  2. So, instinct is of two kinds, the instinct to love (abhimāna) and the instinct to act (karma). Vāsana is lit: scent, (it means habit, tendency, nascent inclination etc.)
  3. Love for matter etc.
  4. Here ends the manner in which one is to fancy disavowal of all authorship of acts to ātma. Next, the subject matter of Lec: IV is renewed.

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