SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
śanaiḥ śanair uparamed
ātma-saṁsthaṁ manaḥ kṛtvā
na kiñcid api cintayet
Desires are of twofold character, sparśa-jāḥ and saṇkalpa-jāḥ. Sparśajāḥ are contact-born, i.e., sensation-born (bodily desires). Saṇkalpa-jāḥ are will-born or mind- born, i.e., desires which have a mental origin. The former are such as cold, heat etc. The latter are such as sons, land etc. Between these, the will-born desires are abandonable in toto. Whereas, the sensational experiences are those which cannot be averted. By an effort of the mind, it may be made to abandon the will-born desires by making it to cease thinking on them; and the pains and pleasures arising from sensations, cold, heat etc., are possible to be resisted by an attitude of indifference.
Thus, in every way, diverting or abstracting the group of senses from their corresponding (external) objects, —by slow degress, by efforts of a wise resolute will—, shall the mind be made to retire from all things save ātma ; and, rested in ātma, nothing shall it think3.
archived in http://githa.koyil.org
- Buddhi is generally translated as understanding, will and so on. Indian philosophy understands by it, the judging, discerning, ascertaining or deciding faculty of the mind. Vide, note 1, above, on ‘Manas‘. ↩
- Manas is generally translated as mind, but mind in English Psychology is a general term denoting Intellect (or Thought), Will (or Volition) & Feelings (or Emotions); but in Indian Psychology, manas is substance, the 11th organ, the internal organ of perception and action. Manas, the mind that functions in the world is the instrument of objective consciousness; whereas buddhi may be considered as the subjective or spiritual consciousness. Manas or the worldy mind constitutes the personality of an entity conterminous with a single incarnation on the material plane; and constitutes also the individuality of the entity as well in its various transmigrations from incarnation to incarnation; the personality being distinguished in the sthūla or gross visible bodily manifestation, and the individuality being distinguished in the sūkshma, linga, or subtle invisible bodily manifestation, and experiences thereof in dream, Svarga, etc. Whereas buddhi is consciousness pure, exempt from all material conditions, and is an inseparable adjunct of the soul. It is spiritual consciousness which eternally adjectivally co-exists with soul (ātmā). In the Yudhishṭhira-Ajagara-Samvāda (vide, Mahābhārata, Aranya Parva, 181st Adhyaya) Ajagara (or the dragon) gives a short and clear definition of buddhi, and manas, worth quoting here:- ‘Buddher ātmānug-ātīva, utpāte na vidhīyate, Tadāśritā hi sā jñeyā, Buddhis tasya-ishiṇi bhavet (25)’. ‘Buddher utpadyate kāryān, manas t-ūtpannam eva hi. Buddher guṇa-vishir nāsti, manas tad-guṇavad bhavet (26)’. Meaning: Buddhi (or intelligence) is the ever indissoluble attribute of the soul (ātmā), and is to be known as dependent on the soul, and ministering to it. Buddhi is the evolvent of effects (or cause) whereas manas is the evolute (or effect). Buddhi is not circumscribed by the guṇas (or properties of matter, whereas manas changes according to the guṇas). ↩
- Read Bhāgavata, XI-14, and Dhyāna-bind-Up: ↩