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18.28 ayuktha: prAkrutha: sthabdha:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 18

<< Chapter 18 Verse 27

SlOkam – Original

ayuktha: prAkrutha: sthabdha: SatO naiṣkruthikO’lasa: |
viSAdhI dhIrghasUthrI cha karthA thAmasa uchyathE ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

ayuktha: – being unqualified (to perform karma prescribed in SAsthram)
prAkrutha: – being a layman (who is not learned in SAsthram)
sthabdha: – being incapable of starting the karma (which are explained in SAsthram)
Sata: – having attachment in inferior karmas like abichAra (exorcising)
naikruthika: – deceitful
alasa: – lethargic in the karma which he started
vishAdhI – naturally sorrowful
dhIrga sUthrI cha – naturally having evil intent towards others
karthA – the performer of karma
thAmasa: uchyathE – is said to be thAmasa karthA

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

The performer of karma who is unqualified (to perform karma prescribed in SAsthram), a layman (who is not learned in SAsthram), incapable of starting the karma (which are explained in SAsthram), having attachment in inferior karmas like abichAra (exorcising), deceitful, lethargic in the karma which he started, naturally sorrowful and aturally having evil intent towards others, is said to be thAmasa karthA.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘That is called Tāmasa-Actor, who is unqualified, vulgar, inert, wicked, deceitful, remiss, doleful and rancorous.’

Unqualified (ayuktaḥ) = The not having the requisite competency for performing a Śāstra-prescribed work.

Vulgar [i.e., Unrefined] (prākritaḥ) = The not having letters1 or wisdom.

Inert (stabdho) = The being destitute of inclination to even begin a work.

Wicked (śathaḥ) = The having a predilection for black magic such as sorcery.

Deceitful (naikṛitiko) = The character to impose on others.

Remiss (alasaḥ) = The being dilatory or lazily slack in a work undertaken.

Doleful (vishādi) = The being always most despondent or gloomy.

Rancorous (dirgha-sūtri) = The harbouring of deep and long vengeance against others towards whom, even witchcraft has been practiced.

Such a person is tāmasa-Actor.

Thus has the threefold character been described of the (1) Knowledge of work to be done, (2) Act that is to be done etc., (3) the Actor of the work (vide., Stanza 19 ante). And now the threefold character of Reason (buddhi) and Purpose (dhṛiti), the essentials for determining all truth and all aim, is described:

>> Chapter 18 Verse 29

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  1. Per M.R.Sampatkumāran: unrefined, that is, not educated in the Śāstras.

18.27 rAgI karmapalaprEpsur

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 18

<< Chapter 18 Verse 26

SlOkam – Original

rAgI karmapalaprEpsur lubdhO himsAthmakO’Suchi:|
harshaSOkAnvitha: karthA rAjasa: parikIrthitha: ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

rAgI – being desirous of fame
karma pala prEpsu: – being desirous of the results of the karma
lubdha: – being a miser (to spend the money required to perform the karma)
himsAthmaka: – harming others to perform his karma
aSuchi : – being impure (lacking the purity which is required to perform the karma)
harsha SOkAnvitha: – being the one who becomes joyous and sorrowful (due to the victory or defeat in war etc respectively)
karthA – the performer of the karma
rAjasa: pari kIrthitha: – is said to be a rAjasa karthA

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

The performer of the karma who is desirous of fame, desirous of the results of the karma, a miser (to spend the money required to perform the karma), harms others to perform his karma, is impure (lacking the purity which is required to perform the karma) and who becomes joyous and sorrowful (due to the victory or defeat in war etc respectively), is said to be a rAjasa karthA.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘That is Rājasa-Actor who is ambitious, fruit-
seeking, niggardly, hurtful, impure, and enslaved by joy and grief.’

Ambitious (rāgi) = An eager desiring after fame, power honor, or distinction.

Fruit-seeking = expecting to reap the benefits of work done.

Niggardy (lubdha) = The being unwilling to Incur expenditure demanded by a work.

Hurtful (hims-ātmaka) = The getting of a work done by subjecting others to cruelty.

Impure (aśuchiḥ) = The being destitute of (personal and other) holiness, a prerequisite for work.

And a slave to joy and grief, consequent on success or failure attending any work such as war; —such is the Rājasa-Actor.

>> Chapter 18 Verse 28

archived in http://githa.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org