18.42 SamO dhamas thapa: Saucham

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 18

<< Chapter 18 Verse 41

SlOkam – Original

SamO dhamas thapa: Saucham kshAnthir Arjavam Eva cha |
gyAnam vigyAnam Asthikyam brahmakarma svabhAvajam ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

Sama: – controlling the external senses
dhama: – controlling the mind
thapa: – applying austerity for the body as ordained in SAsthram
Saucham – acquiring the ability to engage in activities ordained in SAsthram
kshAnthi: – being undisturbed when troubled by others
Arjavam – being harmonious towards others in one’s mind, body and speech
gyAnam – knowing truly about the supreme lord and other principles
vigyAnam – knowing the distinguished features of supreme lord
Asthikyam – having total faith in whatever is explained by vEdham to be truth
svabhAvajam – acquired by [birth based on] previous karma
brahmam karma – are the activities for brAhmaNa

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

Controlling the external senses, controlling the mind, applying austerity for the body as ordained in SAsthram, acquiring the ability to engage in activities ordained in SAsthram, being undisturbed when troubled by others, being harmonious towards others in one’s mind, body and speech, knowing truly about the supreme lord and other principles, knowing the distinguished features of supreme lord, having total faith in whatever is explained by vEdham to be truth, are the activities for brAhmaNa which are acquired by [birth based on] previous karma.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘Restraint, governance, austerity, purity, forgiveness, and uprightness; knowledge, wisdom, faith; —these are duties native to Brāhmaṇas.’

Śama = Restraint = The Discipline of the outer senses.

Dama = Governance = The Discipline of the inner sense (=antaḥ-karaṇa=mind).

Tapas = Austerity = The denial or forbearing to indulge one’s own appetites, and imposing on self bodily restrictions dictated by Śāstras.

Śaucham = Purity = The preparatory holiness required for discharging a Śāstra-ordained duty.

Kshānti = Forgiveness = The preserving the composure of the mind against provocation offered by other parties.

Ārjavam = Uprightness = The correct outward expression to others of what is thought of in the mind.

Jñānam1 = Knowledge of the higher and lower Truths or Verities of the Kosmos.

Vijñānam2 = Wisdom, or knowledge relating to the characteristics or attributes of these Verities.

Āstikyam = Faith = Implicit belief and trust in all the averments of the Vedas; —such that it remains impregnable against any attempt to shake it. This firm conviction consists (in the main) in the belief that:

  1. Vāsudeva is Bhagavān, the Purushottama, and Para-brahma.
  2. He is Beyond all evil.
  3. He is possessed of the countless Illustrious Attributes, such as Omniscience, Omnipotence etc, which are innate and transcendent.
  4. He is the Object of knowledge to be known by all the Vedāntas3.
  5. He is the Sole Cause of the infinite Kosmos.
  6. He is the Sole Prop of the infinite Kosmos.
  7. He is the Sole Director of all Kosmic operations.
  8. All Veda-enjoined duties are but various Modes of His worship.
  9. And so worshipped, He confers on men, each according to the terms of his petition, their several wants such as Dharma, Artha, Kāma and Moksha4.

 

That Such is the sense has already been evidenced by such Texts as: ‘By all the Vedas, I am the Sole Object to be known’: (Gi: XV-15); ‘I am the Origin of all, from Me all moves (Gi: X-8); ‘In Me is all this woven’(Gi: VII-7); ‘I am the Enjoyer of all Yajña and Tapas…….., knowing Me, Peace is attained’ (Gi: V-29); ‘There is nothing exists higher than Me, Dhanañjaya!’: (Gi: VII-6-5); ‘Whoso knows Me, the Birthless, the Beginningless, and the great Lord of the Kosmos’: (Gi: X-3); and further illustrated in such Texts as: ‘Whence impulses of all beings are derived, by Whom all this is permeated, Him does man, worshipping by his act, gain.’ (Gi: XVIII-46).

Such are the duties proper to a Brāhmaṇa.

>> Chapter 18 Verse 43

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  1. Cp. Tait: Up°: VI-10 22. Also Muṇḍ: Up: III-2-6. ‘Vedānta-vijñāna &c.’
  2. Cp. Tait: Up°: VI-10 22. Also Muṇḍ: Up: III-2-6. ‘Vedānta-vijñāna &c.’
  3. 6p: Kaṭh: Up: “Sarve Vedā yat-padam āmananti”.
  4. Four-fold aspirations of man, dharma (meritorious work done here carrying with it the virtue of bringing future happiness, mundane or otherwise), artha (riches and general prosperity), kāma (enjoyments), moksha (deliverance or Salvation).

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