4.28 dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā (Original)

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Chapter 4

<< Chapter 4 verse 27

Simple

dravya-yajñās tapo-yajñā
yoga-yajñās tathāpare
svādhyāya-jñāna-yajñāś ca
yatayaḥ saṁśita-vratāḥ

‘Some do wealth-sacrifices; some, tapas-sacrifices; some yoga-sacrifices; some, svādhyāya-sacrifices; and some yatis of fixed resolve, go in for jñāna-sacrifices.’

Some few karma-yogis go in for wealth-sacrifices; that is, they earn money in the right way, and devote the same to Divine-worship; others devoting it to charitable purposes; others performing Yāgas1 and Homas2 therewith. All these come under wealth-sacrifices.

Others betake themselves to tapas-sacrifices. Tapas is austerity (or penance or mortification of the flesh). Its modes are known as Kṛicchra, Chāndrāyaṇa3, fasting etc.

Others resort to yoga-sacrifices. Yoga here refers to a variety of karma-yoga, in agreement with the subject that is discussed here. Yoga means joining. Joining or making pilgrimages to holy waters, holy shrines etc., is meant by yoga-sacrifices.

Others take to svādhyāya-sacrifices, i.e., study of the Vedas (Holy Scriptures).

Others employ themselves in jñāna-sacrifices, i.e., they endeavour to enquire into the import of the Vedqs and understand them.

Yatis (plu : yatayaḥ) are those who assiduously persevere to accomplish what they undertake.

Samśita-vratāḥ=dṛidha-saṅkalpāḥ=those of fixed resolve or firm determination.

>> Chapter 4 verse 29

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  1. Yāgas are the great Sacrificial rites inculcated in the Vedas, such as aśvamedha-yāga, rāja sūya-yāga, garuda-chayana etc.
  2. Homas are Sacrifices in which consecrated fire is a sine qua non in which offerings (food etc.,) are burnt.
  3. Expiatory penances. See Manu XI-217, Hemādri and other Dharma-Śāstras which give detailed rules. Tapas, Rajendralal Mitra L.L. D., C. I. E., translates, as ‘religious austerity or self-denial’, p. 6o. Yoga Sūtras.

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