13.4 rishibhir bahudhA gItham

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 13

<< Chapter 13 verse 3

SlOkam – Original

rishibhir bahudhA gItham chandhObhir vividhai: pruthak |
brahmasUthrapadhaiS chaiva hEthumadhbhir viniScithai: ||

word-by-word meaning

(This knowledge about kshEthra (field) and kshEthragya (knower of the field) which I am going to explain to you)

rishibi: – by sages (such as parASara et al)
bahudhA – in many ways
gIthAm – sung.
vividhai: chandhObhi: – in many vEdhams [portions of sacred texts]
pruthak (gItham) – (this true nature of body and soul) individually sung.
hEthu madhbhi: – with reasoning
viniSchithai: – fully firm
brahmasUthra padhai: cha Eva – through the sUthrams (aphorisms) in brahma sUthram too (which was mercifully authored by sage bAdharAyaNa)
(pruthak gItham – (this matter) individually sung.)

Simple Translation

This knowledge about kshEthra (field) and kshEthragya (knower of the field) which I am going to explain to you, is sung in many ways by sages (such as parASara et al). They are also individually sung in many vEdhams [portions of sacred texts]. They are also individually sung with reasoning and full firmness through the sUthrams (aphorisms) in brahma sUthram too (which was mercifully authored by sage bAdharAyaNa).

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘What by Rishis is variously sung, and distinctly by various (Veda-)Chants ; also by Brahma-sūtra passages, full of reasoning and certitude,’

The truths regarding the Kshetra and the Kshetrajña have been variously declared by the Rishis, Parāśara etc. Thus for example:

‘O Earth-king! Myself, yourself and others likewise, are all of the elements. Entities (or egos) en masse, take the bodily shape by following the stream of the guṇās.’[1.
Vish: Pur: II-13-69. ‘Aham tvañcha etc.’]

‘Verily, King! are the guṇās, satva etc., dependent upon deeds (=karma); and deeds are gathered together through (i.e., the consequence of) avidyā (ignorance); and this (avidyā) is in all creatures.’[2. Vish: Pur: II-13-70. ‘Karmavaśyā guṇā etc.’]

‘The soul is pure, imperishable, tranquil, void of qualities, being distinct from prakṛiti (=matter).’[3. Vish: Pur: II-13-71. ‘Ātmā śuddho etc.’]

Similarly, ‘Inasmuch as the body characterised by head, hands and the like, is different from the person, to which of these, O King! can I refer the symbol ‘I’?[4. Vish: Pur: II-13-89. ‘Piṇḍaḥ pṛithag etc.’]

Similarly again, ‘Are you this head, or your breast or the belly? or are you the foot etc., and the like, or are they, O King! yours?’[5. Vish: Pur: ii-13-102. ‘Kim-tvam etat-chiraḥ etc.’]

‘Distinct, are you O King! from all the members. Now, like a clever man, King! think who in this is ‘I’.?[6. Vish: Pur: ii-13-103. ‘Samastāvayavebhyaḥ etc.’]

That of both these postulates (matter and soul) distinct from each other, Vāsudeva is Soul, is sung in such verses as:

‘The senses, manas, buddhi and egoship, health, strength and spirit are all, they say, ensouled by Vāsudeva, —both the Kshetra and the Kshetrajña.’[7. Vish: Sahasra-nāmādhyāya: Mahābhā: Anu: Parva CILIX-137.]

Distinctly by various Chants (of Vedas), =by Rig, Yajus, Sāma and Atharva Vedas, the distinctions of body-nature and soul-nature are variously sung, as for example:—

‘From this Ātma, verily is ākāśa(space) sprung; from space, air; from air, fire; from fire, water; from water, earth, from earth, the plants; from plants, food; from food, man (purusha = any embodied creature); and this man is truly full of food-essence.’;[8. Tait: Up: Anan: ii-1-2. ‘Tasmād vā etasmāt etc.’] by which, the nature of the body has been stated. And then the subtler principle of Prāṇa(=life), and then the still subtler principle of manas (=mind), have been stated, closing up with the statement:

‘Other again than this mano-maya principle (mind-full sheath) is the still subtler principle, vijñāna-maya (=intelligence-full sheath= soul)’[9. Tait: Up: ii-4-1. ‘Tasmād-va etasmāt etc.’], by which the nature of soul has been stated. And lastly, the nature of Paramātma (=God) has been stated by the passage:

‘Other again than this vijñāna-maya, the still subtler principle is Ānanda-maya (=God).’[10. Tait: Up: ii-5-2. ‘Tasmād vā etsasmāt etc.’]

Similarly also in many places in the other Vedas, Rig, Sāma, and Atharva, the distinctive features in which Kshetra and Kshetrajña exist, and their ensoulment by Brahm, are all clearly enunciated.

Also by Brahma-Sūtra passages i.e., Aphoristic sentences which treat of the knowledge of Brahm, also called Śārīraka-Sūtras, —authoritative judgments on the topic in question. For instance, —commencing with the Aphorism: ‘Space (=viyat) (does) not (originate), on account of the absence of Śruti (to that effect)’[11. Br: Sū: ii-3-1. ‘Na viyad aśruteḥ’.], —the decisions regarding Kshetra-nature have been formulated.

And, commencing with Aphorisms:

‘The soul is not (born etc.,) says the Śruti; also it is eternal as the same (Śrutis) say.’[12.
Br: Sū: ii-3-18. ‘Na`tma sruter nityatvāccha tābhyaḥ.’

‘Ātma (soul) is intelligent’[13. Br: Sū: ii-3-20. ‘jñota eva’.]. etc., the decisions regarding the truth of Kshetrajña have been formulated.

And by the Aphorism:

‘But from the Highest (Lord), because Śruti says,’[14. Br: Sū: ii-3-40. ‘Parāt tu tach-chruteḥ.’] decision has been pronounced regarding everything being under His Guidance and Power (=pravartyatva) and therefore He is the Soul of all things.

In this manner the truths regarding Kshetra and Kshetrajña have been expounded in numerous places (and numerous ways). And now hear the same which in a lucid and compendious manner I am going to explain.

>> Chapter 13 verse 5

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