18.44 kṛṣi-go-rakṣya-vāṇijyaṁ (Original)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 18

<< Chapter 18 Verse 43


vaiśya-karma svabhāva-jam
paricaryātmakaṁ karma
śūdrasyāpi svabhāva-jam

‘Agriculture, cattle-tending [i.e., protection], and commerce are duties native to a Vaiśya. And service constitutes the duty native to a Śūdra.’

Kṛishi = Culture intended to produce crop.

Go-raksha = The protection of cattle.

Vaṇijyam = All those trading concerns consisting of buying and selling which bring in money.

These are duties proper to a Vaiśya.

And acts of service to all these three classes constitute the duty proper to a Śūdra.

Thus in defining the duties, the necessary performance of Śāstra-enjoined acts such as Yajña etc., and the occupations of the Four Varnas, have all been implied.

Yajñas etc., are certainly common to the Three Varṇas (Brāhmaṇa, Kshatriya and Vaiśya). Śama, Dama etc., are also common to all the Three Varṇas, but being natural to and easily attained by, the Brāhmaṇa, by reason of Satvam being regnant in him, they were allotted to him as his characteristics proper; and not allotted to the Kshatriya and the Vaiśya inasmuch as by reason of Rajas and Tamas being uppermost in them, they (Śama) etc., are not easily attained by them.

As for the occupation of the Brāhmaṇa, it is to teach others to conduct Yajñas, to teach others Vedas, and receive gifts; the occupation of the Kshatriya is to rule the country; of the Vaiśya, cultivation of land etc., as aforesaid; and of the Śūdra, to do all supporting services necessary for the due discharge of duties apportioned to the three (above-stated) classes.

>> Chapter 18 Verse 45

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