18.44 krushigOrakshyavANijyam

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 18

<< Chapter 18 Verse 43

SlOkam – Original

krushigOrakshyavANijyam vaiSyakarma svabhAvajam |
paricharyAthmakam karma SUdhrasyApi svabhAvajam ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

krushi gOrakshya vANijyam – farming, protecting cows and doing business
svabhAvajam – acquired by [birth based on] previous karma
vaiSyam karma – activities for vaiSya
SUdhrasya api – for the Sudhra, who belongs to fourth varNa
svabhAvajam – acquired by [birth based on] previous karma
paricharyAthmakam karma – to take up activities in serving those belonging to the first three varNas

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

Farming, protecting cows and doing business are the activities acquired by [birth based on] previous karma for vaiSya; activities in serving those belonging to the first three varNas, are acquired by [birth based on] previous karma for the Sudhra, who belongs to fourth varNa.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘Agriculture, cattle-tending [i.e., protection], and commerce are duties native to a Vaiśya. And service constitutes the duty native to a Śūdra.’

Kṛishi = Culture intended to produce crop.

Go-raksha = The protection of cattle.

Vaṇijyam = All those trading concerns consisting of buying and selling which bring in money.

These are duties proper to a Vaiśya.

And acts of service to all these three classes constitute the duty proper to a Śūdra.

Thus in defining the duties, the necessary performance of Śāstra-enjoined acts such as Yajña etc., and the occupations of the Four Varnas, have all been implied.

Yajñas etc., are certainly common to the Three Varṇas (Brāhmaṇa, Kshatriya and Vaiśya). Śama, Dama etc., are also common to all the Three Varṇas, but being natural to and easily attained by, the Brāhmaṇa, by reason of Satvam being regnant in him, they were allotted to him as his characteristics proper; and not allotted to the Kshatriya and the Vaiśya inasmuch as by reason of Rajas and Tamas being uppermost in them, they (Śama) etc., are not easily attained by them.

As for the occupation of the Brāhmaṇa, it is to teach others to conduct Yajñas, to teach others Vedas, and receive gifts; the occupation of the Kshatriya is to rule the country; of the Vaiśya, cultivation of land etc., as aforesaid; and of the Śūdra, to do all menial services necessary for the due discharge of duties apportioned to the three (above-stated) classes.

>> Chapter 18 Verse 45

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