13.17 jyOthishAm api thath jyOthis

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 13

<< Chapter 13 verse 16

SlOkam – Original

jyOthishAm api thath jyOthisthamasa: param uchyathE |
gyAnam gyEyam gyAnagamyam hrudhi sarvasya vishtitham ||

word-by-word meaning

thath – that AthmA
jyOthishAm api – for luminous objects (like lamp, sun)
jyOthi: – being the light (to identify them);
thamasa: – primordial matter
param – different from
uchyathE – is said to be;
gyAnam gyEyam – is known to be an embodiment of knowledge;
gyAna gamyam – is attained through knowledge (as explained in previous SlOkams starting with amAnithvam …);
sarvasya – in all creatures such as humans
hrudhi – in the heart
vishtitham – resides.

Simple Translation

That AthmA is the light for identifying luminous objects (like lamp, sun); it is said to be different from the primordial matter; it is known to be an embodiment of knowledge; it is attained through knowledge (as explained in previous SlOkams starting with amAnithvam …); it resides in the heart of all creatures such as humans

 Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘It is the light even of lights and is said to be beyond darkness (tamas); wisdom-knowable; wisdom-gainable; centred in every heart.’

Lights are such as those of sun, fire, gem etc. Light of these lights means that which illuminates these or that by the light of which these lights are seen, meaning light of knowledge before which all the luminaries, the sun etc, shine. As for lamp-light and the rest, they but dispel the darkness intervening between the sense of (sight) and its object; the illuminating power of these lights is but limited to such work. (Not so the light of the soul).

It is said to be beyond darkness (tamas). The term tamas is designatory of the subtle condition of prakṛiti (=matter). It (soul) transcends even this subtle principle.

Hence jñānam-jneyam = Comprehensible by intellect or knowledge) as that which is characterized by intelligence (or consciousness=jnānākāra).

It is jnāna gamyam=wisdom-gainable or that what can be reached by wisdom embodied in the qualities: ‘Reverence’ etc., or by qualities which constitute knowledge by means of which to gain wisdom.

Centred in every heart= Present or seated in the hearts of all creatures, man etc. in a pronounced form.

>> Chapter 13 verse 18

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