2.10 tham uvAcha hrishIkeSa:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 2

<< Chapter 2 verse 9

SlOkam – Original

tham uvAcha hrishIkeSa: prahasanniva bhAratha |
sEnayOrubhayOr madhyE sIthamAnamidham vacha: ||

word-by-word meaning

bhAratha – Oh dhritharAshtra who is a descendant in bharatha clan!
hrishIkESa: – krishNa
prahasan iva – with a smile
ubhayO: sEnayO: madhyE – in between the two armies
vishIdhantham – grieving
tham – towards arjuna
idham vacha: – these words
uvAcha – spoke

Simple Translation

Oh dhritharAshtra who is descendant in bharatha clan! Towards the grieving arjuna who is standing in between the two armies, krishNa with a smile, spoke these words.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

Sañjaya continued:

Bhārata[1. Dhṛitarāshtra.]! With a smile did Hṛishīkeśa regard him (Arjuna), who thus stood sad between the two armies; and He spoke to him these words:

Beholding Arjuna overwhelmed with grief at not knowing the distinction between the true nature of body (matter) and soul (ātmā), and yet discoursing in a fashion that one, with a knowledge of soul existing as apart from body, would adopt, – a position of conflicting views for Arjuna -; beholding him, suddenly languishing into inactivity when both the armies were ready to engage in war, Paramapurusha lectured to him smilingly, commencing from verse:

‘Never at all was, that I was not, etc;’

and ending with,

‘I shall deliver thee from all sins, etc;’

embodying the three-fold doctrines of Karma-Yoga[5. Yoga here means method, path or means. ‘Karma-Yoga‘ is thus ‘the method of Works’ or doing deeds of virtue as inculcated in Scriptural and other ethical codes.], Jñāna-Yoga[6. ‘Jñāna-Yoga‘ is ‘the Method of Knowledge.’], and Bhakti-Yoga[7. ‘Bhakti-Yoga‘ is ‘the Method of Loving Devotion.’ By these Methods one is to know (1) his Soul, (2) know his God, and (3) find them. I use the word ‘find’ so that it might suit the moksha-idea of any of the three Schools, Dvaita, Advaita or Viśishtādvaita. Throughout my translation, I retain the original expressions Karma-Yoga, Jñāna-Yoga, and Bhakti-Yoga, as far as possible, the convenience of which will be evident.], which are the Means for acquiring the true knowledge of Ātmā (soul) Paramātma[10. Supreme Spirit, the Unexcelled or the Peerless Spirit] (Supreme Soul = God), and for attaining them.

Smilingly means, that Krishna discoursed on these most abstruse subjects of philosophy and religion as if it were but a pleasant recreation.

>> Chapter 2 verse 11

archived in http://githa.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.