13.19 prakruthim purusham chaiva

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 13

<< Chapter 13 verse 18

SlOkam – Original

prakruthim purusham chaiva vidhdhyanAdhI ubhAvapi |
vikArAmS cha guNAṁS chaiva vidhdhi prakruthisambhavAn ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

prakruthim cha – mUla prakruthi (primordial matter)
purusham api ubhau Eva – and the jIvAthmA (soul), both
anAdhI vidhdhi – know them to be together since time immemorial
vikArAn cha – changes (such as liking, hatred etc which are the cause for bondage in this samsAram)
guNAn cha Eva – and the qualities (such as amAnithvam etc which are the cause for liberation), both
prakruthi sambhavAn vidhdhi – know them to be born in this material realm

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

Know that both the mUla prakruthi (primordial matter) and the jIvAthmA (soul), have been together since time immemorial; know that both the changes (such as liking, hatred etc which are the cause for bondage in this samsAram) and the qualities (such as amAnithvam etc which are the cause for liberation), are born in this material realm.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘Matter and Spirit, know, are both beginning-less. Know that passions as well as virtues are matter-born.’

Know that from time out of beginning, exist matter (prakriti) and soul (purusha) enmeshed together.

Vikāras=lit: modifications of properties= unspiritual tendencies or qualities=passions.

Guṇas=lit: qualities=good qualities=virtues. Passions are desire, hatred etc., which forge bondage (bandha); and Virtues are ‘Reverence etc,’ —qualities which effectuate liberation (moksha).

Matter in union with Soul, perpetuating from time immemorial, —evolved as body (kshetra) —conduces by its modifications of desire, aversion etc., to bind him (the soul); and the same prakṛiti (matter), by its modifications of ‘Reverence’ etc., constitutes the cause of soul’s emancipation.

>> Chapter 13 verse 20

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