SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
SlOkam – Original
SrI bhagavAn uvAcha
lOkE’smin dhvividhA nishtA purA prOkthA mayAnagha |
gyAna yOgEna sAnkhyAnAm karma yOgEna yOginAm ||
word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)
anagha! – Oh sinless!
asmin lOkEna – in this world which is filled with different personalities
mayA – by me (who is most merciful, who explains the principles as it is)
dhvi vidhA – two types of
nishtA – states
purA – in previous chapter
prOkthA – explained elegantly
sAnkhyAnAm – for the ones with intelligence (which is focussed on the self and is not attracted by worldly pleasures)
gyAna yOgEna (nishtA) – the state of gyAna yOga
yOginAm – for the ones who are eligible for karma yOga (due to their having intelligence that is interested in worldly pleasures)
karma yOgEna (nishtA) – the state of karma yOga
Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)
Oh sinless! In this world which is filled with different personalities, [the presence of] two types of states have been explained elegantly by me (who is most merciful, who explains the principles as it is) in previous chapter; (They are) the state of gyAna yOga for the ones with intelligence (which is focussed on the self and is not attracted by worldly pleasures) and the state of karma yOga for the ones who are eligible for karma yOga (due to their having intelligence that is interested in worldly pleasures). (It is implied that krishNa is saying “Since I have categorized the two states based on the eligibility of the individuals, there is no contradiction in my words”.)
Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam
‘Two kinds of Paths, for this world, O Sinless! were proclaimed by Me already, the jñāna-yoga for the Sānkhyas, and the karma-yoga for the Yogis.’
You have not clearly understood what I already spoke, to the effect, that in this world, abounding as it is in differently charactered men, there are two Paths, the one of Knowledge (jñāna), and the other of work (karma), suited to the capacities of the persons concerned. Not all men, who are born in the world, are born with moksha-ambition (or taste), and able enough (at once) to embark on the Path of Knowledge; but they must perform Works without aiming for reward, performing them, too, as so many acts of Divine Worship. So done, the contaminations (or evils) of the heart get extirpated; and then the sense will not be turbulent. A man so disciplined is then able to enter on the Course of Knowledge.
That all acts constitute acts of Divine Worship will be found stated further on in verse: ‘Worshipping Him, by one’s acts, from Whom all beings derive their impulses, -by Whom all this is pervaded-, man attains perfection.’ (Bh: Gi: xviii-46)
It has already been even seen that such verses as “Right, thou have, but to work etc.,” (ii-47), ordain the performance of works with no anticipations of fruit; and then when one rises in wisdom beyond the turmoils of sense-objects, the Path of Knowledge is prescribed to him by such verses as “When one gives up all desires etc.,” (ii-55). Hence jñāna-yoga (the psychic or Knowledge-Path) was prescribed for Sāṇkhyās, and karma-yōga (Work-Path) for the Yogis.
Saṇkhyā means buddhi=Knowledge or Wisdom, or reflection, or will. Those who possess this are called Sāṇkhyas, that is those who are possessed of the wisdom concerning ātmā. (Hence the mind-training or will-training-jñāna-yoga– is for the Sāṇkhyas).
Those who are not fit for this course, are the Yogis, or those who are fit to follow Karma-yoga, or the Path of Works.
Hence there was not the least equivocation of language when it was asserted that for one who is subject to the distractions of phenomenal objects, Karma-Yoga is suited, and for one who is not so subject, jñāna-yoga is suited.
It is now shown that, even though a wish for moksha arises in the man of the world, he is, yet, not competent enough to immediately enter on the jñāna-yoga-Path:-
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