8.4 adhibhUtham ksharO bhAva:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 8

<< Chapter 8 verse 3

SlOkam – Original

adhibhUtham ksharO bhAva: purushaS chAdhidhaivatham |
adhiyagyO’ham evAthra dhEhE dhEhabhruthAm vara ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

dhEhabruthAm vara – Oh best among those who have a body!
adhibhUtham – adhibhUtham (which is to be known for aiSwaryArthi (those who seek worldly wealth)) is
kshara: bhAva: – (the best) Sabdham etc [worldly pleasures] which are naturally subject to change;
adhidhaivatham cha – adhidhaivatham (which is to be known by them again) is
purusha: – the purusha (deity) who is greater than celestial beings such as indhra et al.
adhiyagya: – adhiyagyam (which is to be known by all three categories viz seekers of worldly wealth, self-enjoyment and service to bhagavAn) is
athra dhEhE aham Eva – I who is worshipped by yagyams (sacrifices) by being the antharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul) of celestial beings such as indhra et al, who are my bodies.

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

Oh best among those who have a body! adhibhUtham (which is to be known for aiSwaryArthi (those who seek worldly wealth)) is (the best) Sabdham etc [worldly pleasures] which are naturally subject to change; adhidhaivatham (which is to be known by them again) is the purusha (deity) who is greater than celestial beings such as indhra et al. adhiyagyam (which is to be known by all three categories viz seekers of worldly wealth, self-enjoyment and service to bhagavAn) is me who is worshipped by yagyams (sacrifices) by being the antharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul) of celestial beings such as indhra et al, who are my bodies.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘Adhibhūtam is that which is of the nature of the perishable; and Adhidaivatam is Purusha (the enjoyer); and Adhiyajña in this body, is Myself. O Best of beings!’

By Adhibhūtam, —that which is to be known by the fortune-seeker (aiśvary-ārthi)— is that which is of the perishable nature, the transcendentally subtile principles of sound, touch, etc., with their supports —the senses— which are latent in the elements, ether (ākāśa etc.,), and develope therefrom. The subtile and transcendentally exquisite sound, touch, colour, taste and smell —with their supports the (senses)— are mentioned here as objects upon which the fortune-seeker has necessarily to contemplate.

Adhi-daivatam is Purusha; Purusha is the conscious spirit —the enjoyer,— whose status becomes above (adhi) the daivatas, the celestials or minor gods, such as Indra, Prajāpati and all such lower divinities. (Not merely above them in position but the) Purusha is one who becomes the enjoyer of rare and keenly exquisite (vilakshaṇa) delights of sound etc., surpassing even those that pertain to such celestials as Indra, Praāapati etc.1

The fortune-seekers (aiśvary-ārthi) have to meditate on such a Purusha, as the enjoyer of subtle transcendent delights; and this is what is called ‘knowing the adhidaivatam‘.

Adhiyajña is Myself:2 The appellation Adhiyajña denotes Myself. It means that I am He, Who is present in Indra etc., that constitute My body— as He who is worshipped by sacrifices (yajñas.,)

The Adhiyajña is thus the Indwelling Myself and is He Whom all the three classes of My devotees (bhaktas) have to contemplate in all their acts of worship, viz: The Mahā-yajñās3, the Nitya and the Naimittika duties.

>> Chapter 8 verse 5

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  1. To him who gets riches through God, the delights granted are of such kind.
  2. Vide Taitti: Samh: i-74 (yajño vai Vishṇuḥ).
  3. Manu, iii, 69-71. The five Great Sacraments or Acts of Divine Worship ordained for every holy man are:- 1. Adhyāpana = The teaching of the Sacred Scriptures, etc., called Brahma-yajña. 2. Tarpaṇa = The oblation of water, food, etc., called Pitṛi-yajña. 3. Homa = The offering of clarified butter, etc., into fire, called Deva-yajña. 4. Bali = The distribution of food to creatures in general, called Bhūta-yajña. 5. Athiti-pūjana = entertainment of holy guests, called Nṛi-yajña. Vide Manu, III 69 to 73.

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