Author Archives: Śrīvēnkatēśa Rāmānujaḍāsan

18.28 ayuktha: prAkrutha: sthabdha:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 18

<< Chapter 18 Verse 27

SlOkam – Original

ayuktha: prAkrutha: sthabdha: SatO naiṣkruthikO’lasa: |
viSAdhI dhIrghasUthrI cha karthA thAmasa uchyathE ||

word-by-word meaning (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

ayuktha: – being unqualified (to perform karma prescribed in SAsthram)
prAkrutha: – being a layman (who is not learned in SAsthram)
sthabdha: – being incapable of starting the karma (which are explained in SAsthram)
Sata: – having attachment in inferior karmas like abichAra (exorcising)
naikruthika: – deceitful
alasa: – lethargic in the karma which he started
vishAdhI – naturally sorrowful
dhIrga sUthrI cha – naturally having evil intent towards others
karthA – the performer of karma
thAmasa: uchyathE – is said to be thAmasa karthA

Simple Translation (based on puththUr krishNamAchArya swAmy’s thamizh translation)

The performer of karma who is unqualified (to perform karma prescribed in SAsthram), a layman (who is not learned in SAsthram), incapable of starting the karma (which are explained in SAsthram), having attachment in inferior karmas like abichAra (exorcising), deceitful, lethargic in the karma which he started, naturally sorrowful and aturally having evil intent towards others, is said to be thAmasa karthA.

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘That is called Tāmasa-Actor, who is unqualified, vulgar, inert, wicked, deceitful, remiss, doleful and rancorous.’

Unqualified (ayuktaḥ) = The not having the requisite competency for performing a Śāstra-prescribed work.

Vulgar [i.e., Unrefined] (prākritaḥ) = The not having letters1 or wisdom.

Inert (stabdho) = The being destitute of inclination to even begin a work.

Wicked (śathaḥ) = The having a predilection for black magic such as sorcery.

Deceitful (naikṛitiko) = The character to impose on others.

Remiss (alasaḥ) = The being dilatory or lazily slack in a work undertaken.

Doleful (vishādi) = The being always most despondent or gloomy.

Rancorous (dirgha-sūtri) = The harbouring of deep and long vengeance against others towards whom, even witchcraft has been practiced.

Such a person is tāmasa-Actor.

Thus has the threefold character been described of the (1) Knowledge of work to be done, (2) Act that is to be done etc., (3) the Actor of the work (vide., Stanza 19 ante). And now the threefold character of Reason (buddhi) and Purpose (dhṛiti), the essentials for determining all truth and all aim, is described:

>> Chapter 18 Verse 29

archived in http://githa.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

  1. Per M.R.Sampatkumāran: unrefined, that is, not educated in the Śāstras.

18.28 ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ (Original)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 18

<< Chapter 18 Verse 27

Simple

ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ
śaṭho naiṣkṛtiko ’lasaḥ
viṣādī dīrgha-sūtrī ca
kartā tāmasa ucyate

‘That is called Tāmasa-Actor, who is unqualified, vulgar, inert, wicked, deceitful, remiss, doleful and rancorous.’

Unqualified (ayuktaḥ) = The not having the requisite competency for performing a Śāstra-prescribed work.

Vulgar1 (prākritaḥ) = The not having letters or wisdom.

Inert (stabdho) = The being destitute of inclination to even begin a work.

Wicked (śathaḥ) = The having a predilection for black magic such as sorcery.

Deceitful (naikṛitiko) = The character to impose on others.

Remiss (alasaḥ) = The being dilatory or lazily slack in a work undertaken.

Doleful (vishādi) = The being always most despondent or gloomy.

Rancorous (dirgha-sūtri) = The harbouring of deep and long vengeance against others towards whom, even witchcraft has been practised.

Such a person is tāmasa-Actor.

Thus has the threefold character been described of the (1) Knowledge of work to be done, (2) Act that is to be done etc., (3) the Actor of the work (vide., Stanza 19 ante). And now the threefold character of Reason (buddhi) and Purpose (dhṛiti), the essentials for determining all truth and all aim, is described:

>> Chapter 18 Verse 29

archived in http://githa.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

  1. Per M.R.Sampatkumāran: unrefined, that is, not educated in the Śāstras.