13.22 upadraṣṭānumantā ca (Original)

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Chapter 13

<< Chapter 13 verse 21


upadraṣṭānumantā ca
bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ
paramātmeti cāpy ukto
dehe ’smin puruṣaḥ paraḥ

‘In this body, this soul excellent, is spectator and permitter, supporter and enjoyer, the great lord, and is also called paramātma.’

The purusha dwelling in this body (=soul) is spectator or he who directs by means of the will, the several operations attaching to the body; and permits them; also is he the prop of the body, also the enjoyer of pains and pleasures, born of bodily activities. Thus by virtue of ruling, supporting, and enjoying the body, the purusha is the great lord (maheṣvara) of the body, and the senses and the mind therein. That he is such a lord (īṣvara), is further declared thus:

‘When the lord (īṣvara) goes into the body, and when he goes out of it, he seizes these and goes, like wind (seizing) the scents from their seats.’ (Gi: XV-8).

To the body, the senses and the mind, he is also said to be paramātma=supreme spirit, —within the limits of the body. The term ‘ātma’ is often applied to signify ‘body’, and ‘mind,’ as for example in:

‘By meditation do some perceive soul in ātma (body), by ātma(mind).’ (Gī: XIII-24). (Therefore param-ātmā would mean the soul that transcends both the body and the mind).

The conjunctive particle ‘api’=also, appears to refer to the epithet ‘great lord,’ meaning that so far as this body is concerned, the soul may be called the great lord, the paramātma and so on.

Paraḥ purushaḥ=excellent soul: so called from the natural potentialities of infinite consciousness and power pertaining to this purusha (soul) as detailed in Stanza:—

‘Beginningless, having Me as Goal’; et seq (Gī: XIII-12)

>> Chapter 13 verse 23

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