13.22 upadhrashtAnumanthA cha

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Chapter 13

<< Chapter 13 verse 21

SlOkam – Original

upadhrashtAnumanthA cha bharthA bhokthA mahESvara: |
paramAthmEthi chApyukthO dhEhE’smin purusha: para: ||

word-by-word meaning

asmin dhEhE – (present) in this body
para: purusha: – this AthmA (which has infinite knowledge and power)
upadhrashtA – acting (upon seeing the body)
anumanthA – allowing/meditating (the actions of the body)
bharthA – supporting it
bhOkthA – enjoying (the joy/sorrow resulting from the actions of the body)
mahESvara: – being the great lord (for his own body, senses, mind etc)
paramAthmA – being the great soul (which is greater than body, senses, mind etc)
ithi chApi uktha: – he is explained in this manner

Simple Translation

This AthmA (which has infinite knowledge and power) which is (present) in this body, is explained to be acting (upon seeing the body), allowing/meditating (the actions of the body),  supporting it, enjoying (the joy/sorrow resulting from the actions of the body), the great lord (for his own body, senses, mind etc) and the great soul (which is greater than his own body, senses, mind etc).

Rendering based on ALkoNdavilli gOvindhAchArya swAmy’s English translation of gIthA bhAshyam

‘In this body, this soul excellent, is spectator and permitter, supporter and enjoyer, the great lord, and is also called paramātma.’

The purusha dwelling in this body (=soul) is spectator or he who directs by means of the will, the several operations attaching to the body; and permits them; also is he the prop of the body, also the enjoyer of pains and pleasures, born of bodily activities. Thus by virtue of ruling, supporting, and enjoying the body, the purusha is the great lord (maheṣvara) of the body, and the senses and the mind therein. That he is such a lord (īṣvara), is further declared thus:

‘When the lord (īṣvara) goes into the body, and when he goes out of it, he seizes these and goes, like wind (seizing) the scents from their seats.’ (Gi: XV-8).

To the body, the senses and the mind, he is also said to be paramātma=supreme spirit, —within the limits of the body. The term ‘ātma’ is often applied to signify ‘body’, and ‘mind,’ as for example in:

‘By meditation do some perceive soul in ātma (body), by ātma(mind).’ (Gī: XIII-24). (Therefore param-ātmā would mean the soul that transcends both the body and the mind).

The conjunctive particle ‘api’=also, appears to refer to the epithet ‘great lord,’ meaning that so far as this body is concerned, the soul may be called the great lord, the paramātma and so on.

Paraḥ purushaḥ=excellent soul: so called from the natural potentialities of infinite consciousness and power pertaining to this purusha (soul) as detailed in Stanza:—

‘Beginningless, having Me as Goal’; et seq (Gī: XIII-12)

>> Chapter 13 verse 23

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