Essence of SrI bhagavath gIthA – Chapter 15 (purANa purushOththama yOga)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Essence of SrI bhagavath gIthA

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In the ninteenth SlOkam of gIthArtha sangraham, ALavandhAr explains the summary of fifteenth chapter saying “In the fifteenth chapter – SrIman nArAyaNan who is purushOththama was spoken about. He is better than badhdha jIvAthmA (bound soul) who is attached to achith (material body) and muktha jIvAthmA (liberated soul) who gave up the prAkrutha sarIram (material body) since he is different from them and is pervading them, bearing them and being their master”.

Important SlOkams/Verses

SlOkam/Verse 1

SrI bhagavAn uvAcha
UrdhvamUlam adhaSSAkham aSvaththam prAhur avyayam |
chandhAmsi yasya parNAni yas tham vEdha sa vEdhavith ||

bhagavAn spoke – One who knows that samsAram, which is [like] a peepal tree having its root at the top and the well spread out branches at the bottom, which is imperishable (due to continuous existence), which is having vEdha vAkyams (sayings from sacred texts) as the leaves. as said (by vEdham), is the knower of vEdham.

Note: samsAram is narrated as a peepal tree by bhagavAn.

In the 2nd and 3rd SlOkams, bhagavAn further explains the spread of the tree that is samsAram.

In the 2nd part of 3rd SlOkam and 1st part of 4th SlOkam, detachment to worldly aspects is highlighted as the main weapon to sever the tree of samsAram and attain the state of eternity.

In the 2nd part of 4th SlOkam, it is highlighted that surrendering unto the eternal bhagavAn is the means to eliminate ignorance etc.

In the 5th SlOkam, he elaborates what was explained in the previous SlOkam.

SlOkam/Verse 6

na thadh bhAsayathE sUryO na SaSAnkO na pAvaka: |
yadh gathvA na nivarthanthE thadh dhAma paramam mama ||

That light of jIvAthmA, after reaching where, there is no return (to samsAram for those who reached there), is not illuminated by the sun, moon and fire. That supreme light is mine.

SlOkam/Verse 7

mamaivAmSO jIvalOkE jIvabhUtha: sanAthana: |
mana:shashtAnIndhriyANi prakruthisthAni karshathi ||

The jIvAthmA (soul) is existing since time immemorial (forever), being one amongst the jIvAthmAs who are having my features, being a badhdha jIva (bound soul, surrounded by karma), being in this leelA vibhUthi (material realm) where bound souls live; such AthmA makes the mind and the five gyAna indhriyams (skin, mouth, eyes, nose and ears – the sense organs of knowledge) which are present in body which is an effect of prakruthi (matter), work.

In the 8th SlOkam, jIvAthmA carrying its senses from one body to another body, is explained.

In the 9th SlOkam, it is explained that jIvAthmA enjoys worldly aspects through those senses.

In the 10th and 11th SlOkams, krishNa explains that the reason for all of this suffering is AthmA considering himself to be independent and why some AthmAs are realising and others are not realising their true nature.

In the 12th SlOkam, he highlights that the light of luminous objects are all his.

In the 13th SlOkam, he highlights that he pervades the earth and supports every thing and remains as the moon to nourish everything.

In the 14th SlOkam, he highlights that he remains the fire of digestion and helps the body digest all types of food items.

SlOkam/Verse 15

sarvasya chAham hrudhi sannivishtO maththa: smruthir gyAnam apOhanam cha |
vEdhaiS cha sarvairaham Eva vEdhyO vEdhAnthakruth vEdhavidhEva chAham ||

I have entered the heart of all creatures as the AthmA and am residing there; memory, knowledge to identify any entity and forgetfulness originate from me; I am only known from all vEdhams; I am only the benefactor of the fruits of the ordainments of vEdham and the knower of vEdham.

SlOkam/Verse 16

dhvAvimau purushau lOkE ksharaS chAkshara Eva cha |
kshara: sarvANi bhUthAni kUtasthO’kshara uchyathE ||

In SAsthram (sacred texts), two types of souls viz kshara – badhdha jIvAthmAs (bound souls – those who are with destructible material body) and akshara – muktha jIvAthmAs (liberated souls – those who are with indestructible spiritual body) are well known; all bound souls are known as kshara purusha. akshara purusha is known as mukthAthmAs (who have no material connection).

SlOkam/Verse 17

uththama: purushas thvanya: paramAthmEthyudhAhrutha: |
yO lOkathrayam AviSya bibharthyavyaya ISvara: ||

But the one who is pervading and supporting the three types of entities [of the world] viz achith (matter), badhdha jIvAthmAs (bound souls) and mukthAthmAs (liberated souls), who is indestructible and is the controller, who is known (from SAsthram) as paramAthmA, is the supreme person (due to these reasons) and is distinct (from previously explained kshara and akshara purushas).

SlOkam/Verse 18

yasmAth ksharam athItho’ham aksharAdh api chOththama: |
athO’smi lOkE vEdhE cha prathitha: puruṣhOththama: ||

Since I am surpassing the kshara purusha (bound souls) and being greater than akshara purusha (liberated souls), I am reputedly known as purushOththama in Sruthi and smruthi.

In the 19th SlOkam, he says that those who know him truly know the path to reach him and has served him in all ways.

SlOkam/Verse 20

ithi guhyathamam SAsthram idham uktham mayAnagha |
Ethadh budhvA budhdhimAn syAth kruthakruthyaS cha bhAratha ||

Oh sinless! Oh descendant of bharatha! In this manner, this most secretive scripture, purushOththama vidhyA, was instructed by me to you. Knowing this, one shall become wise to attain me and shall have accomplished all the necessary tasks for such attainment.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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