Essence of SrI bhagavath gIthA – Chapter 16 (dhaivAsura sampath vibhAga yOga)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Essence of SrI bhagavath gIthA

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In the twenteeth SlOkam of gIthArtha sangraham, ALavandhAr explains the summary of sixteenth chapter saying “In the sixteenth chapter – after explaining the classification of dhEva (saintly) and asura (cruel) (among the humans) to establish the knowledge about the truth (that is to be attained) and the practice of the process (that will acquire the goal), the truth about (humans) being bound by SAsthram is spoken”.

Important SlOkams/Verses

SlOkam/Verse 1

SrI bhagavAn uvAcha
abhayam sathvasamSudhdhi: gyAnayOgavyavasthithi: |
dhAnam dhamaS cha yagyaS cha svAdhyAyas thapa Arjavam ||

Fearlessness, purity of heart, being focussed on AthmA (which is distinct from matter), giving righteously earned wealth to noble people in charity, restraining the mind from engaging in sensual pleasures, engaging in pancha mahA yagyam etc (as thiruvArAdhanam to bhagavAn, without any expectation), studying vEdham, engaging in penances (such as EkAdhaSi vratham etc), and having the mind, speech and actions in harmony …

Note: In the first 3 SlOkams, the qualities of divine natured person are explained.

SlOkam/Verse 2

ahimsA sathyam akrOdhas thyAga: SAnthir apaiSunam |
dhayA bhUthEshvalOlupthvam mArdhavam hrIr achApalam ||

… not harming any creature, speaking the truth which causes good to all creatures, not having anger (which leads to harming others), giving up (those aspects which do not cause any good to self), training the senses (except mind) to not engage in sensual pleasures, avoiding slander (which causes harm to others), being unable to tolerate the sufferings of other creatures, being detached from worldly matters, being gentle (to be easily approached by noble persons), being ashamed (of engaging in harmful activities), not even desiring for the aspects which are in reach …

SlOkam/Verse 3

thEja: kshamA dhruthi: Saucham adhrOhO nAthimAnithA |
bhavanthi sampadham dhaivIm abhijAthasya bhAratha ||

… being undefeated (by evil people), patience (even towards those who harm), being firm (even in dire situations), having cleanliness (in mind, speech and body) to engage in activities (which are highlighted in SAsthram), not interfering in the noble actions of others, absence of pride (such qualities) are present for those who are having divine birth (to follow the ordainment of bhagavAn), oh descendant of bharatha!

SlOkam/Verse 4

dhambhO dharpO’thimAnaS cha krOdha: pArushyam Eva cha |
agyAnam chAbhijAthasya pArtha sampadham AsurIm ||

Oh son of kunthI! In those who have the wealth of asuras (that is, violating the orders of bhagavAn), qualities such as practicing righteousness to attain fame (of being righteous), pride (derived due to enjoying sensual pleasures), great ego, anger (which harms others), harshness (which irks noble people) and ignorance (in understanding the truth and what is to be done and not to be done) are present.

Note: In this SlOkam, the demoniac natured person’s qualities are explained.

SlOkam/Verse 5

dhaivI sampadh vimOkshAya nibandhAyAsurI mathA |
mA Sucha: sampadham dhaivIm abhijAthO’si pANdava ||

The wealth of dhEvas (which is, following my orders) leads to liberation from samsAram; the wealth of asuras (which is, violating my orders) leads to attainment of lowly states. Oh son of pANdu! Do not grieve (thinking “am I born as an asura?”); you are born as a dhEva (divine person) to fulfil the wealth of dhEvas.

Note: When arjuna became worried doubting his own nature, krishNa eliminated his worry saying arjuna has divine nature.

From the 6th SlOkam, he gives a detailed narration of demoniac qualities since divine qualities have already been explained as part of explaining karma, gyAna and bhakthi yOgams.

In these SlOkams, the demoniac persons ignoring righteousness, God and Godly aspects and focussing only on physical attraction between male and female bodies, are explained in detail. They strive for materialistic aspirations continuously, consider sensual pleasures as the only goal and acquire wealth even in wrong ways for that. They consider themselves to be independent and achievers of their goals. Being like this, they fail in the middle of their efforts and fall in hell due to their past actions. They have pride, consider themselves to be strong, generous, and also have desires, anger, jealousy etc.

SlOkam/Verse 19

thAn aham dvishatha: krUrAn samsArEshu narAdhamAn |
kshipAmyajasram aSubhAn AsurIshvEva yOnishu ||

I continuously push those (demoniac people) who are having hatred towards me (as explained previously), being cruel, being lowly amongst men, being inauspicious, in births (which contain repeated birth, death, old-age and disease), that too, in demoniac births.

Note: In this SlOkam and the next one, he explains the result for demoniac persons.

SlOkam/Verse 20

AsurIm yOnim ApannA mUdA janmani janmani |
mAm aprApyaiva kaunthEya thathO yAntyadhamAm gathim ||

Oh son of kunthI! These people, having attained demoniac births (as explained in previous SlOkam), in subsequent births, having nurtured with misunderstanding about me, without attaining true knowledge about me, attain lower states than those [lowly] births.

In the 21st SlOkam, the cause for this demoniac nature which destroys the AthmA is explained.

In the 22nd SlOkam, the series of benefits for those who give up demoniac nature is explained.

SlOkam/Verse 23

ya: SAsthravidhim uthsrujya varthathE kAmakAratha: |
na sa sidhdhim avApnOthi na sukham na parAm gathim ||

One who is acting on his own desire, discarding my orders of vEdham, does not attain any goal such as birth in heaven etc in his next birth. He does not attain happiness in this birth as well. He does not attain the ultimate goal (of attaining me) as well.

SlOkam/Verse 24

thasmAch chAsthram pramANam thE kAryAkAryavyavasthithau |
gyAthvA SAsthravidhAnOktham karma karthum ihArhasi ||

Thus, vEdham is the only authority (due to its being the cause for wisdom) for you to determine what is to be pursued and what is to be discarded. Thus, knowing truly the principle (of supreme lord) which is explained in SAsthram and the means to attain him, you are qualified to pursue the ordained activities (and the wisdom) here, in this karma bhUmi [ordained place for carrying out one’s deeds] .

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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